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Description of Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyor (REAC) technology

Background knowledge
The radio electric fields interact with all the structures that contain electrical charges, such as the human body, and induce currents in them.
These currents vary according to the molecular characteristics of the tissues.

The REAC technology - basic knowledge
The REAC technology generates a radioelectric emission of very low intensity. The peculiarity of REAC technology is not the emission itself, but the particular physic link between the device and the patient’s body.
The “Asymmetric Conveyer Probe” (ACP) represents this link. This is the absolute innovation of REAC technology (internationally patented)1,2.

Why is REAC an asymmetric technology?
A normal electric circuit has two physical poles: one positive and one negative (symmetrical circuit); in the REAC technology, there is only one single physical pole (asymmetrical circuit). This pole becomes the attractor (Asymmetric Conveyer) for the currents induced in the body by the radio electric emission.
This scheme has been developed for a specific purpose: to create an asymmetric circuit for better interact with the asymmetric mechanism underlying the cell polarity3, in order to optimize its functions. In fact, REAC technology is able to modulate the current flows existing both at cellular and body level, when these are altered.

Why does REAC use low power emissions?
Another peculiarity of REAC Technology is the low power level used in radio electric emission. This is necessary to induce current flows of intensity comparable with those of cell polarity. Higher power levels would disturb the adjustment mechanisms of cell polarity. Dysregulation of cell polarity can cause developmental disorders.

Why does REAC use specific frequencies?
The REAC technology is independent of the radio frequency emission used. REAC devices use only two frequencies (2.4 and 5.8 GHz). These two frequencies were chosen for two reasons. First of all, these are the most widely used and permitted at the international level. Secondly, based on our clinical and scientific experience, the 2.4 GHz frequency was chosen to better interact with tissues and cell cultures4-15, while the 5.8 GHz frequency was chosen to better interact with the nervous system16-37.

Why does treatment duration vary?
When functional modulation effects are needed, we use short duration treatments; when we want to induce developmental changes, this process of induction has to be accompanied every step of the way throughout its development. Therefore, long duration treatments are required.

Cell polarity
Cell polarity is implicated in cellular differentiation, proliferation and morphogenesis. Cell polarity relies on the asymmetric organization of cellular components and structures, and the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity involves many processes including signaling cascades, membrane trafficking events and cytoskeletal dynamics, all of which need to be coordinated in a highly regulated manner38.

Purpose of REAC technology
The purpose of REAC technology is to optimize  the ions fluxes at the molecular level, and concentrate all the micro currents produced by these ions fluxes in points or specific areas of the body, in order to optimize the electrogenic and electrometabolic activity of cells and tissues (cell polarity).
All that induces remarkable biological effects at many scales, from gene modulations6,7,9,10,12-14 up to functional global remodeling8,16,17.


1 Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. Radioelectric Asymmetric Conveyer for therapeutic use. EP1301241 (B1) (2000).
2 Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. Radioelectric Asymmetric Conveyer for therapeutic use. USA patent 7,333,859 (2001).
3 Cibrian‐Uhalte, E. & Abdelilah‐Seyfried, S. in Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine     237-243 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006).
4 Castagna, A., Fontani, V., Rinaldi, S. & Mannu, P. Radio electric tissue optimization in the treatment of surgical wounds. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 4, 133-137, doi:10.2147/CCID.S24090 (2011).
5 Fontani, V., Castagna, A., Mannu, P. & Rinaldi, S. Radioelectric asymmetric stimulation of tissues as treatment for post-traumatic injury symptoms. International Journal of General Medicine 4, 627-634, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S24296 (2011).
6 Maioli, M. et al. Radiofrequency energy loop primes cardiac, neuronal, and skeletal muscle differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells: a new tool for improving tissue regeneration. Cell Transplant 21, 1225-1233, doi:10.3727/096368911X600966 (2012).
7 Rinaldi, S. et al. Regenerative treatment using a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor as a novel tool in antiaging medicine: an in vitro beta-galactosidase study. Clinical Interventions in Aging 7, 191-194, doi:10.2147/CIA.S33312 (2012).
8 Collodel, G. et al. Effects of regenerative radioelectric asymmetric conveyer treatment on human normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. A biochemical and morphological study. Clinical Interventions in Aging 8, 309-316, doi:10.2147/CIA.S42229 (2013).
9 Maioli, M. et al. Anti-senescence efficacy of radio-electric asymmetric conveyer technology. AGE, doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9537-8 (2013).
10 Maioli, M. et al. Radio electric conveyed fields directly reprogram human dermal skin fibroblasts toward cardiac, neuronal, and skeletal muscle-like lineages. Cell Transplant 22, 1227-1235, doi:10.3727/096368912X657297 (2013).
11 Rinaldi, S. et al. Physical reparative treatment in reptiles. BMC Vet Res 9, 39, doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-39 (2013).
12 Maioli, M. et al. Radioelectric asymmetric conveyed fields and human adipose-derived stem cells obtained with a nonenzymatic method and device: a novel approach to multipotency. Cell Transplant 23, 1489-1500, doi:10.3727/096368913X672037 (2014).
13 Rinaldi, S. et al. Stem cell senescence. Effects of REAC technology on telomerase-independent and telomerase-dependent pathways. Sci Rep 4, 6373, doi:10.1038/srep06373 (2014).
14 Maioli, M. et al. Neurological morphofunctional differentiation induced by REAC technology in PC12. A neuro protective model for Parkinson's disease. Sci Rep 5, 10439, doi:10.1038/srep10439 (2015).
15 Panaro, M. A. et al. in Microwave Symposium (MMS), 2015 IEEE 15th Mediterranean.  1-4.
16 Rinaldi, S., Mura, M., Castagna, A. & Fontani, V. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study. Sci Rep 4, 5668, doi:10.1038/srep05668 (2014).
17 Zippo, A. G. et al. Electrophysiological effects of non-invasive Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyor (REAC) on thalamocortical neural activities and perturbed experimental conditions. Sci Rep 5, 18200, doi:10.1038/srep18200 (2015).
18 Mannu, P., Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V., Castagna, A. & Margotti, M. L. Radio electric treatment vs. Es-Citalopram in the treatment of panic disorders associated with major depression: an open-label, naturalistic study. Acupunct Electrother Res 34, 135-149 (2009).
19 Castagna, A. et al. Does osteoarthritis of the knee also have a psychogenic component? Psycho-emotional treatment with a radio-electric device vs. intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate: an open-label, naturalistic study. Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research 35, 1-16 (2010).
20 Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V., Aravagli, L., Lotti Margotti, M. Psychological and symptomatic stress-related disorders with radio-electric treatment: psychometric evaluation. Stress and Health 26, 350-358, doi:10.1002/smi.1298 (2010).
21 Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V., Aravagli, L. & Mannu, P. Psychometric evaluation of a radio electric auricular treatment for stress related disorders: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled controlled pilot study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 8, 31, doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-31 (2010).
22 Rinaldi, S. et al. A new approach on stress-related depression & anxiety: Neuro-Psycho- Physical-Optimization with Radio Electric Asymmetric-Conveyer. The Indian journal of medical research 132, 189-194 (2010).
23 Castagna, A., Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. & Mannu, P. Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation and lingual apex repositioning in patients with atypical deglutition. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 4, 209-213, doi:10.2147/JMDH.S22830 (2011).
24 Fontani, V., Mannu, P., Castagna, A. & Rinaldi, S. Social anxiety disorder: radio electric asymmetric conveyor brain stimulation versus sertraline. Patient Prefer Adherence 5, 581-586, doi:10.2147/PPA.S27409 (2011).
25 Fontani, V. et al. Noninvasive radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of stress-related pain and physical problems: psychometric evaluation in a randomized, single-blind placebo-controlled, naturalistic study. International Journal of General Medicine 4, 681-686, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S24628 (2011).
26 Mannu, P., Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. & Castagna, A. Long-term treatment of bipolar disorder with a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 7, 373-379, doi:10.2147/NDT.S22007 (2011).
27 Mannu, P., Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. & Castagna, A. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease. Clinical Interventions in Aging 6, 207-211, doi:10.2147/CIA.S23394 (2011).
28 Mannu, P., Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V., Castagna, A. & Margotti, M. L. Noninvasive brain stimulation by radioelectric asymmetric conveyor in the treatment of agoraphobia: open-label, naturalistic study. Patient Prefer Adherence 5, 575-580, doi:10.2147/PPA.S26594 (2011).
29 Olivieri, E. B. et al. Radioelectric brain stimulation in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with comorbid major depression in a psychiatric hospital: a pilot study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 7, 449-455, doi:10.2147/NDT.S23420 ndt-7-449 [pii] (2011).
30 Rinaldi, S. et al. Stress-related psycho-physiological disorders: randomized single blind placebo controlled naturalistic study of psychometric evaluation using a radio electric asymmetric treatment. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 9, 54, doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-54 (2011).
31 Rinaldi, S., Fontani, V. & Castagna, A. Brain activity modification produced by a single radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation pulse: a new tool for neuropsychiatric treatments. Preliminary fMRI study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 7, 649-654, doi:10.2147/NDT.S26123 (2011).
32 Fontani, V. et al. Neuropsychophysical optimization by REAC technology in the treatment of: sense of stress and confusion. Psychometric evaluation in a randomized, single blind, sham-controlled naturalistic study. Patient Prefer Adherence 6, 195-199, doi:10.2147/PPA.S29734 (2012).
33 Fontani, V., Rinaldi, S., Castagna, A. & Margotti, M. L. Noninvasive radioelectric asymmetric conveyor brain stimulation treatment improves balance in individuals over 65 suffering from neurological diseases: pilot study. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 8, 73-78, doi:10.2147/TCRM.S28812 (2012).
34 Mura, M., Castagna, A., Fontani, V. & Rinaldi, S. Preliminary pilot fMRI study of neuropostural optimization with a noninvasive asymmetric radioelectric brain stimulation protocol in functional dysmetria. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 8, 149-154, doi:10.2147/NDT.S29971 (2012).
35 Olazaran, J. et al. Motor Effects of REAC in Advanced Alzheimer's Disease: Results From a Pilot Trial. J Alzheimers Dis 36, 297-302, doi:10.3233/JAD-130077 (2013).
36 Olazaran, J. et al. Motor effects of radio electric asymmetric conveyer in Alzheimer's disease: results from a cross-over trial. J Alzheimers Dis 42, 325-332, doi:10.3233/JAD-140417 (2014).
37 Rinaldi, S. et al. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer: a novel neuromodulation technology in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Frontiers in Psychiatry 6, 22, doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00022 (2015).
38 From the editors. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9, 821-821 (2008).

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